"We are all Refugees in the HUMAN RACE, we need your Help. . . . .      











FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

JUNE 1999


Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


Decide to Survive!


S - U - R - V - I- V - A - L -

Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses
Remember where you are.
Vanquish fear and panic.

Improvise and improve. Value living.
Act like the natives. Live by your wits.


1. Immediate Actions

a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!

b. Takeactiontoprotectyourselffromnuclear,biological,or chemical hazards (Chapter IX).

c. Seek a concealed site.
d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V).
e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information.
f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving.
g. Applypersonalcamouflage.
h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site.

2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I)
a. Reassesssituation;treatinjuries,theninventoryequipment. b. Reviewplanofaction;establishpriorities(ChapterVI).
c. Determine current location.
d. Improvecamouflage.
e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand.
f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!

Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.


3. Concealment (Chapter I)
a. Selectaplaceofconcealmentproviding

(1) Adequate concealment, ground and air.

(2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC).

(3) Listening and observation points.
(4) Multiple avenues of escape.
(5) Protection from the environment.
(6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities.

  1. Stayalert,maintainsecurity.

  2. Drink water.

4. Movement (Chapters I and II)
a. Travel slowly and deliberately.

c. Stay away from LOC.
d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another.
f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I).

5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III)
a. Communicateasdirectedinapplicableplans/orders,

particularly when considering transmitting in the blind.
b. Bepreparedtousecommunicationsandsignalingdeviceson

short notice.
c. Use of communications and signaling devices may

compromise position.

6. Recovery (Chapter IV)
a. Selectsite(s)IAWcriteriaintheaterrecoveryplans.
b. Ensuresiteisfreeofhazards;securepersonalgear.
c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. ObservesiteforproximitytoenemyactivityandLOC.
e. Follow recovery force instructions.


FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe, Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command

Quantico, Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command

Newport, Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama

29 JUNE 1999

Survival, Evasion, and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for
Survival, Evasion, and Recovery

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Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival, evasion, and recovery information. See Appendix B for the scope, purpose, application, implementation plan, and user information.

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1. Planning.......................................................................................I-1 2. Camouflage..................................................................................I-1 3. Shelters........................................................................................I-3 4. Movement....................................................................................I-3


  1. StayorMoveConsiderations.....................................................II-1

  2. NavigationandPositionDetermination...................................II-1

  3. TravelConsiderations.................................................................II-10

  4. River Travel ................................................................................. II-10

  5. IceandSnowTravel...................................................................II-11

  6. MountainHazards......................................................................II-12

  7. SummerHazards........................................................................II-12

  8. DryClimates................................................................................II-12


9. TropicalClimates........................................................................II-13

10. Open Seas ................................................................................... II-13


1. Radio Communications (Voice and Data).................................. III-1

2. Signaling......................................................................................III-2


1. Responsibilities............................................................................IV-1 2. SiteSelection...............................................................................IV-1 3. SitePreparation..........................................................................IV-1 4. RecoveryProcedures..................................................................IV-1


1. ImmediateFirstAidActions......................................................V-1 2. Common Injuries and Illnesses.................................................. V-9 3. PlantMedicine.............................................................................V-15 4. HealthandHygiene....................................................................V-18 6. Rules for Avoiding Illness........................................................... V-18


  1. Priorities......................................................................................VI-1

  2. Care and Use of Clothing .......................................................... VI-1

  3. Other Protective Equipment ...................................................... VI-2

  4. Shelters........................................................................................VI-3

  5. Fires.............................................................................................VI-8


1. Water Requirements .................................................................. VII-1 2. WaterProcurement....................................................................VII-1 3. Water Preparation and Storage................................................. VII-7


1. FoodProcurement.......................................................................VIII-1 2. FoodPreparation........................................................................VIII-9 3. FoodPreservation.......................................................................VIII-11


1. NuclearConditions.....................................................................IX-1 2. BiologicalConditions..................................................................IX-6 3. ChemicalConditions...................................................................IX-7



APPENDIX A THE WILL TO SURVIVE............................... A-1


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1. Planning


a. Reviewthequickreferencechecklistontheinsidecover.

  1. Guidelinesforsuccessfulevasioninclude-

    (1) Keeping a positive attitude.
    (2) Using established procedures.
    (3) Following your evasion plan of action.
    (4) Being patient.
    (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). (6) Conserving strength for critical periods.
    (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible.
    (8) Staying out of sight.

  2. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos.
    (2) Shaving cream, after-shave lotion, or other cosmetics. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented).

    (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet).

    (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable).

  3. Wheretogo(initiateevasionplanofaction):

    (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (2) Selected area for evasion.
    (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (4) Designated area for recovery.

2. Camouflage

a. Basicprinciples:
(1) Disturb the area as little as possible.
(2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. (3) Apply personal camouflage.

b. Camouflagepatterns(FigureI-1): (1) Blotch pattern.

(a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (b) Desert areas (barren).
(c) Snow (barren).

(2) Slash pattern.
(a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes).

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(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes).

(c) Grass (narrow slashes).
(3) Combination. May use blotched and slash together.


Figure I-1. Camouflage Patterns

c. Personal camouflage application follows:
(1) Face. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on

any remaining exposed areas. Use a hat, netting, or mask if available.

(2) Ears. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines.

(3) Head, neck, hands, and the under chin. Use scarf, collar, vegetation, netting, or coloration methods.

(4) Light colored hair. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net.

d. Positionandmovementcamouflagefollows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement.
(2) Take advantage of natural concealment:


(a) Cut foliage fades and wilts, change regularly.
(b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. (c)
DO NOT select vegetation from same source.
(d) Use stains from grasses, berries, dirt, and charcoal.

(3) DO NOT over camouflage.
(4) Remember when using shadows, they shift with the sun.

(5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch, glasses, or pens).

  1. (6)  Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off.

  2. (7)  Remove unit patches, name tags, rank insignia, etc.

  3. (8)  Break up the outline of the body, “V” of crotch/armpits.

  4. (9)  Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position.

3. Shelters

a. Usecamouflageandconcealment.
b. Locate carefully
easy to remember acronym: BLISS.

(1) Choose an area
(a) Least likely to be searched (drainages, rough terrain,

etc.) and blends with the environment.
(b) With escape routes (
DO NOT corner yourself). (c) With observable approaches.

(2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges, ditches, and rocks to keep from forming paths to site.

(3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons.
(4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation.
(5) Take the direction finding threat into account before

transmitting from shelter.
(6) Ensure overhead concealment.

4. Movement

a. A moving object is easy to spot. If travel is necessary

  1. (1)  Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2).

  2. (2)  Use the military crest.

  3. (3)  Restrict to periods of low light, bad weather, wind, or

reduced enemy activity.


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B - Blend
L - Low silhouette
I - Irregular shape S - Small
S - Secluded location

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Figure I-2. Ground Movement

  1. (4)  Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3).

  2. (5)  At irregular intervals

    (a) STOP at a point of concealment.

    (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke,

tracks, roads, troops, vehicles, aircraft, wire, buildings, etc.). Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight.

(c) LISTEN for vehicles, troops, aircraft, weapons, animals, etc.

(d) SMELL for vehicles, troops, animals, fires, etc.

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Figure I-3. Avoid Silhouetting

(6) Employ noise discipline; check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them.

b. Breakupthehumanshapeorrecognizablelines.

c. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel.

d. Sometechniquesforconcealingevidenceoftravelfollows:
(1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level.
DO NOT break branches, leaves, or grass.
(3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to

its original position.
DO NOT grab small trees or brush. (This may scuff the

bark or create movement that is easily spotted. In snow country, this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route.)

(5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). TRY NOT TO

(a) Overturn ground cover, rocks, and sticks.
(b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks.
(c) Make noise by breaking sticks. (Cloth wrapped

around feet helps muffle this.)
(d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back.


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(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by
(a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation, downed

logs, and snowdrifts.

(b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks

to fill in.
(c) Traveling during windy periods.

(d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs, rocks, etc.) leaving less evidence of travel.

(e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old.

(7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it.)

(8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. e. Penetrate obstacles as follows:

(1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury.

(2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. Go under fence if unavoidable, crossing at damaged areas. DO NOT touch fence; look for electrical insulators or security devices.

(3) Penetrate rail fences, passing under or between lower rails. If impractical, go over the top, presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4).

(4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes, shadows, bend in road, etc. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. (Figure I-5)

(5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. Next, align body parallel to tracks with face down, cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. Repeat for the second track. (Figure I-6).


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Figure I-4. Rail Fences


Figure I-5. Road Crossing

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Figure I-6. Railroad Tracks

WARNING: If 3 rails exist, 1 may be electrified.

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Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles.

1. Stay or Move Considerations

a. Staywiththevehicle/aircraftinanon-combatenvironment. b. Leaveonlywhen

(1) Dictated by the threat.

(2) Are certain of your location, have a known destination, and have the ability to get there.

(3) Can reach water, food, shelter, and/or help.

(4) Convinced rescue is not coming.
c. Consider the following if you decide to travel:

(1) Follow the briefed evasion plan.
(2) Determine which direction to travel and why.
(3) Decide what equipment to take, cache, or destroy.

d. Leaveinformationatyourstartingpoint(inanon-combat environment) that includes

(1) Destination.
(2) Route of travel.
(3) Personal condition. (4) Supplies available.

e. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map.
DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination.
DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information.

Note: These actions may compromise information if captured.

2. Navigation and Position Determination

a. Determineyourgenerallocationby

  1. (1)  Developing a working knowledge of the operational area.

    (a) Geographic checkpoints.
    (b) Man-made checkpoints.
    (c) Previous knowledge of operational area.

  2. (2)  Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula.

  3. (3)  Using information provided in the map legend.

  4. (4)  Using prominent landmarks.

II -1

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(5) Visualizing map to determine position.
b. Determinecardinaldirections(north,south,east,andwest)


  1. (1)  Using compass.

  2. (2)  Using stick and shadow method to determine a true

north-south line (Figure II-1).

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CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction.

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Figure II-1. Stick and Shadow Method

(3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west.

(4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2).

(a) Digital watches. Visualize a clock face on the watch.

(b) Northern Hemisphere. Point hour hand at the sun. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position.

(c) Southern Hemisphere. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand.

II -2

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Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the

Connect marks to form an arc.

Using A Watch - To Determine





Figure II-2. Direction Using a Watch

(5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3)

  1. (a)  Gather the following necessary materials:

    Flat writing material (such as an MRE box).
    1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig, nail, or match). Pen or pencil.

  2. (b)  Start construction at sunup; end construction at

sundown. Do the following:

Attach shadow tip device in center of paper.

Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period).



If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time



Indicate north with a drawn arrow.
Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line.

(c) Do the following during travel:
Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of

present time (drawn arrow now points to true north).

II -3

1 week.

(d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately


CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading.

Figure II-3. Pocket Navigator

(6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the
(a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line.
(b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line.

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Figure II-4. Stars

c. Orient the map by
(1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5)

(a) Unfold map and place on a firm, flat, level nonmetallic surface.

II -4

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(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line.

(c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information.

Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).

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Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north

22 1/2°

Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass

337 1/2°

Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass

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Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north

Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass

22 1/2°

Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass

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337 1/2°

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Figure II-5. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line

II -5

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(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6)
(a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north

line of the compass rose closest to your location.

(b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.

Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.


Figure II-6. Map Orientation with Compass Rose

II -6

(3) If there is NO compass, orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method.

d. Determine specific location.

  1. (1)  Global Positioning System (GPS).

    (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation.
    (b) Use GPS to confirm your position
    (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. (d) Conserve GPS battery life.

  2. (2)  Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7).


Figure II-7. Triangulation

  1. (a)  Try to use 3 or more azimuths.

  2. (b)  Positively identify a major land feature and

determine a line of position (LOP).

(c) Check map orientation each time compass is used.

(d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat).

(e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. e. Use the compass for night navigation by

  1. (1)  Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8).

  2. (2)  Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and

follow front of compass.

(3) Using point-to-point navigation. f. Route selection techniques follow:

II -7

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Setting the Compass for Night Travel

Luminous Line

North Seeking Arrow

Stationary Index Bezel Ring

Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees.

Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees, subtract heading from

360 then divide sum by 3. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line.

Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right.

Figure II-8. Compass Night Navigation Setup

(1) Circumnavigation.
(a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of

the obstacle.

  1. (b)  Contour around obstacle to landmark.

  2. (c)  Resume your route of travel.

  1. (2)  Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9).

  2. (3)  Straight-line heading as follows:

    (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination.

    (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in

a given course and convert to map units.

II -8

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WE900 900




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original Obstacle original


plus 45 0 to heading


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minus 450 from original heading

Figure II-9. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset

One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground.

Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain, 900 paces per kilometer [average], or example in rough terrain, 1200 paces per kilometer [average]).

(c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain, day/night travel, or injured/uninjured condition. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count.

(4) Deliberate offset is
(a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that

is, road or river).
(b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so

you know which way to turn at the linear feature. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line.

(a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point.

(b) On reaching a point, establish another landmark and continue.

II -9

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3. Travel Considerations

a. Picktheeasiestandsafestroute(non-combat).
b. Maintainarealisticpace;takereststopswhenneeded.
c. Avoid overdressing and overheating.
d. Consider food and water requirements.
e. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly).
f. Pack equipment to prevent loss, damage, pack imbalance, and

personal safety.

  1. Goaroundobstacles,notoverorthroughthem.

  2. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat).

  3. Travel in forested areas if possible.

  4. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event

of heavy rains.
k. Consider the following for swamps, lakes, and unfordable


  1. (1)  Circumnavigate swamps, lakes, and bogs if needed.

  2. (2)  Travel downstream to find people and slower water.

  3. (3)  Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.

4. River Travel

River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading).

a. Useflotationdevice(raft,log,bamboo,etc.).
b. Useapoletomovetheraftinshallowwater.
c. Use an oar in deep water.
d. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). e. Keep near shore.

f. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags.

(2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees).
(3) Rapids (
DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). (4) Waterfalls.
(5) Hazardous animals.

g. Considerusingaflotationdevicewhencrossingriversor large/deep streams.

II -10

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5. Ice and Snow Travel

Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. a. DONOTtravelin

(1) Blizzards.
(2) Bitterly cold winds. (3) Poor visibility.

b. Obstaclestowintertravelfollow:

  1. (1)  Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE).

  2. (2)  Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary, make

snowshoes [Figure II-10]). Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted.

Figure II-10. Improvised Snowshoes

(3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid:
(a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater.
(b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior

(c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops.

(4) If caught in an avalanche, do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth.

II -11

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(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows.

(5) Frozen water crossings.

  1. (a)  Weak ice should be expected where—

    Rivers are straight.
    Objects protrude through ice.
    Snow banks extend over the ice.
    Rivers or streams come together.
    Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas.

  2. (b)  Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume.

  3. (c)  When crossing frozen water, distribute your weight

by laying flat, belly crawling, or using snowshoes.

c. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided.

6. Mountain Hazards

a. Lightning. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. b. Avalanche. Avoid areas prone to avalanches.
c. Flash floods. Avoid low areas.

7. Summer Hazards (see page II-10; paragraph 3, Travel Considerations, items h through k.)

(1) Dense brush.
(a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat).
(b) Travel in forested areas if possible.
(c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in

the event of heavy rains.
(2) Swamps, lakes, and unfordable rivers.

(a) Circumnavigate swamps, lakes, and bogs if needed. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.

8. Dry Climates

a. DONOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available.

b. Travelatdawnorduskonhotdays.
c. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat), avoiding—

(1) Deep sandy dune areas.

(2) Rough terrain. d. Insandduneareas—

(1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes.

II -12

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(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. e. If a sandstorm occurs

(1) Mark your direction of travel.
(2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel.
(3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. (5) Protect the eyes.
(6) Remain stationary until the storm is over.

9. Tropical Climates

a. Travelonlywhenitislight.
b. Avoidobstacleslikethicketsandswamps.
c. Part the vegetation to pass through. Avoid grabbing

vegetation; it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). d. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them.

  1. Find trails—

    1. (1)  Where 2 streams meet.

    2. (2)  Where a low pass goes over a range of hills.

  2. While traveling trails

    (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails; they may

indicate a pitfall or trap.

(2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail.
(4) Exercise caution, the enemy uses the trails also.

10. Open Seas

a. Usingcurrents
(1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). Sea anchor may be

adjusted to make use of existing currents. (2) Sit low in the raft.

(3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. b. Usingwinds

(1) Pull in sea anchor.
(2) Inflate raft so it rides higher.
(3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind.
(4) Construct a shade cover/sail
(Figure II-12). (Sail aids in

making landfall.)

II -13

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Figure II-11. Sea Anchor Deployment


Figure II-12. Shade/Sail Construction

c. Making landfall. Indications of land are
(1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky

where all other clouds are moving.

  1. (2)  Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics).

  2. (3)  Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes

dark gray reflections) (in the arctic).

II -14

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(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (5) The odors and sounds.

(a) Odors from swamps and smoke.

(b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk.

d. Swimmingashore
(1) Consider physical condition.
(2) Use a flotation aid.
(3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall.
(4) Remain in raft as long as possible.
(5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if

thrown from raft.

  1. (6)  Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing.

  2. (7)  Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of

waves (waves are generally in sets of 7, from smallest to largest). (8) In moderate surf.

(a) Swim forward on the back of a wave.

(b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride.

(9) In high surf.
(a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves.

(b) When the seaward wave approaches, face it and submerge.

(c) After it passes, work shoreward in the next trough. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave—

(a) Remain calm and swim to the surface.
(b) Lie as close to the surface as possible.
(c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point

further down shore.
(11) Select a landing point.

(a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the

(12) After selecting a landing site

(a) Face shoreward.

(b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects.

II -15

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e. Rafting ashore
(1) Select landing point carefully.
(2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in

front of you causing poor visibility.
(3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of

land if possible.
(4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (5) Penetrate surf by—

(a) Taking down most shade/sails.
(b) Using paddles to maintain control. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability.

CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral.

f. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. Icebergs, small flows, and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a


  1. (1)  Use paddles to avoid sharp edges.

  2. (2)  Store raft away from the ice edge.

  3. (3)  Keep raft inflated and ready for use.

  4. (4)  Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away.

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II -16

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Chapter III

1. Radio Communications (Voice and Data)

a. Non-combat.
(1) Ensure locator beacon is operational.
(2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve

battery use.

  1. Combat.

    (1) Turn off locator beacon.
    (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations.

  2. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in

applicable plans/orders.

d. Ifnoimmediatecontact,thenasdirectedinapplicable plans/orders.

e. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). f. Transmissions.

(1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site


  1. (2)  Face recovery asset.

  2. (3)  Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure

DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or

attaching bolt, space blanket, vegetation, etc.).
(5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). Use

data burst if available.
(6) Move after each transmission (
ONLY in combat, if

(7) If transmitting in the blind, ensure a clear LOS towards

the equator.
(8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding.

g. Listening(usereceptiontimesinapplicableplans/ordersoras directed by recovery forces).


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Inventory and review the operating instructions of all communications and signaling equipment.

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Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation

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Top cone of silence


Main lobe 100%


Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution

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100% Main lobe


Bottom cone of silence





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Figure III-1. Radio Transmission Characteristics

2. Signaling

a. Pyrotechnic signals.
Prepare early (weather permitting).
(2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed

by recovery forces.
(3) Extend over raft's edge before activating.


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  1. Signal mirror (Figure III-2).
    (1) Use as directed by recovery forces.
    (2) If no radio, use only with confirmed friendly forces. (3) Cover when not in use.

    Figure III-2. Sighting Techniques

    Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass.

  2. Strobe/IR lights.
    (1) Prepare early, consider filters and shields. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces.
    (3) Conserve battery life.

    Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off.

  3. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). (1) Materials:

    (a) Manmade (space blanket, signal paulin, parachute).

    (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or

texture of the signaling area (rocks, brush, branches, stomped grass).

(2) Location.
(a) Maximize visibility from above.
(b) Provide concealment from ground observation.

(3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3).


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Figure III-3. Size and Ratio

  1. (4)  Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners).

  2. (5)  Contrast (use color and shadows).

  3. (6)  Pattern signals (Figure III-4).


Figure III-4. Signal Key

e. Sea dye marker.
DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping.
(3) May be used to color snow.


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f. Non-combat considerations:
(1) Use a fire at night.
(2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark

smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon.

(4) Use audio signals (that is, voice, whistle, and weapons fire).

Figure III-5. Smoke Generator


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1. Responsibilities


a. Establishradiocontactwithrecoveryforces(ifpossible).
b. Maintaincommunicationwithrecoveryforcesuntilrecovered. c. Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable

d. Follow recovery force instructions, be prepared to report—

(1) Enemy activity in the recovery area.
(2) Recovery site characteristics (slope, obstacles, size, etc.). (3) Number in party/medical situation.
(4) Signal devices available.

e. If no radio, a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery.

2. Site Selection

a. Locate area for landing pick-up, if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter, free of obstructions, flat and level).

b. Assessevidenceofhumanactivityat/nearthesite(in combat).

c. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). d. Planseveraltacticalentryandexitroutes(incombat).

3. Site Preparation

a. Packandsecureallequipment.
b. Preparesignalingdevices(useasdirectedorasbriefed). c. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft, ground, boat,


4. Recovery Procedures

a. Assistrecoveryforceinidentifyingyourposition.
b. Stayconcealeduntilrecoveryisimminent(incombat). c. For a landing/ground recovery—

(1) Assume a non-threatening posture.
(2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement.
DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery

vehicle, especially on sloping or uneven terrain. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers.


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d. For hoist recovery devices(FiguresIV-1andIV-2)


(2) touching to

(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

signal you (9)

Use eye protection, if available (glasses or helmet visor). Allow metal on device to contact the surface before avoid injury from static discharge.
Sit or kneel for stability while donning device.

Put safety strap under armpits.
Ensure cable is in front of you.
Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors.
DO NOT become entangled in cable.
Use a thumbs up, vigorous cable shake, or radio call to

are ready.
Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation.

(10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. Follow crewmember instructions.

e. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)—
(1) Create a
fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits

(Figure IV-3).
(2) Follow the procedures in
"d" above.


Figure IV–1. Rescue Strap


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Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator


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Step 1

Step 2

Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop

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1. Immediate First Aid Actions

a. Determineresponsivenessasfollows:
(1) If unconscious, arouse by shaking gently and shouting. (2) If no response—

(a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.
(b) Roll victims onto their backs.
(c) Open the airway by lifting the chin
(Figure V-1). (d) Look, listen, and feel for air exchange.

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WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible.

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Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation

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Figure V-1. Chin Lift


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(3) If victim is not breathing—
(a) Check for a clear airway; remove any blockage.
(b) Cover victim's mouth with your own.
(c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed.
(d) Fill victim’s lungs with
2 slow breaths.
(e) If breaths are blocked, reposition airway; try again. (f) If breaths still blocked, give
5 abdominal thrusts:

Straddle the victim.
Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. Thrust upward to expel air from stomach.

(g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth.
(h) Try
(i) If the airway is still blocked, continue
(c) through (f)

until successful or exhausted.
(j) With open airway, start mouth to mouth breathing:

Give 1 breath every 5 seconds.

Check for chest rise each time.
(4) If victim is unconscious, but breathing—

(a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.

(b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway).

(5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma, refer to page V-7, paragraph 1d, Treat Chest Injuries.

b. Controlbleedingasfollows:

  1. (1)  Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2).

  2. (2)  If STILL bleeding—

    (a) Use direct pressure over the wound.
    (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart.


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CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. For travel, you may shorten and secure the object.

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Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing


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(3) If STILL bleeding—
(a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the

heart (Figure V-3).
(b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before

checking to see if bleeding has stopped.

Figure V-3. Pressure Points


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(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding—

(a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best.

  1. (b)  Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4.

  2. (c)  Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long.

  3. (d)  Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding.

  4. (e)  Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied.

  5. (f)  DO NOT cover the tourniquet.

  6. (g)  If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2

hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening—

Ensure pressure dressing is in place.
Ensure bleeding has stopped
Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case

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CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb.

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CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available.

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bleeding resumes.

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  1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.


  2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.

  3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.

  4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.

Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet


c. Treat shock. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. It may be present with or without visible injury.)

  1. (1)  Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale, cool, and sweaty skin.
    (b) Fast breathing and a weak, fast pulse. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion.

    (d) Decreased urine output.

  2. (2)  Maintain circulation.

  3. (3)  Treat underlying injury.

  4. (4)  Maintain normal body temperature.

    (a) Remove wet clothing. (b) Give warm fluids.

    DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim.

    DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. (c) Insulate from ground.
    (d) Shelter from the elements.

  5. (5)  Place conscious victim on back.

  6. (6)  Place very weak or unconscious victim on side, this will—

    (a) Allow mouth to drain.

    (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway.

d. Treatchestinjuries.

(1) Sucking chest wound. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated; may cause victim to gasp for breath; may cause sucking sound; may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest.

(a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material.

(b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter.

(c) Monitor breathing and check dressing.

(d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape, as necessary.

(2) Flail chest. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing.


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Figure V-5. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing

  1. (a)  Stabilize the flail segment as follows:
    Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. Tape pad to site
    DO NOT wrap tape around chest.

  2. (b)  Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure.

  3. (c)  Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other

injuries allow).

(3) Fractured ribs.
(a) Encourage deep breathing (painful, but necessary to

prevent the possible development of pneumonia).
DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs.

e. Treat fractures, sprains, and dislocations.
(1) Control bleeding.
(2) Remove watches, jewelry, and constrictive clothing. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin—


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(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water.

(b) Apply dressing over wound.

  1. (4)  Position limb as normally as possible.

  2. (5)  Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb).

  3. (6)  Improvise a splint with available materials:

    (a) Sticks or straight, stiff materials from equipment.

    (b) Body parts (for example, opposite leg, arm-to-chest).

  4. (7)  Attach with strips of cloth, parachute cord, etc.

  5. (8)  Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing

the joints on both sides of the fracture. If fracture is in a joint, immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint.

  1. (9)  Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. (a) Rest.

    (b) Ice.
    Compression. (d) Elevation.

  2. (10)  Apply cold to acute injuries.

  3. (11)  Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application.

    (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day.
    (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or

(12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site.
(15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if

swelling occurs because bandage is too tight.

2. Common Injuries and Illnesses

a. Burns. Calendula Liquid is Excellent for Burns

  1. (1)  Cool the burned area with water.

    (a) Use immersion or cool compresses.

    (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water.

  2. (2)  Remove watches, jewelry, constrictive clothing.


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CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position, NOT in straight position. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple.

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(3) DO NOT remove embedded, charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed.

(4) Cover with sterile dressings.
DO NOT use lotion or grease.
(6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part.
(7) Drink
extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss

from burns. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water.)

(8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. b. Eyeinjuries.

(1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty, burning sensation, and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure).

(a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (See Chapter VI, page VI-3, Figure VI-2.)

  1. (b)  Treat by patching affected eye(s).
    Check after 12 hours.
    Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed.

  2. (c)  Use cool compresses to reduce pain.

(2) Foreign body in eye.

(a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye.

(b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation, improvise a small swab. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected


(c) If foreign body is STILL not removed, patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b).

c. Heat injury.

  1. (1)  Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen).

    (a) Rest.

    (b) Drink water. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart.

  2. (2)  Heat exhaustion (pale, sweating, moist, cool skin).

    (a) Rest in shade.
    (b) Drink water.
    (c) Protect from further heat exposure.

  3. (3)  Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious, skin is

hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur], fast pulse).


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CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. Shock, seizures, and cardiac arrest can occur.

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(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. (Avoid overcooling.)

(b) Maintain airway, breathing, and circulation. d. Coldinjuries:

(1) Frostnip and frostbite—
(a) Are progressive injuries.

Ears, nose, fingers, and toes are affected first. Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to—

••Numbness that progresses to—
•••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot

glide freely over a joint.
(b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. If body

heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes, then frostbite is

(c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require

medical treatment.

(2) Hypothermia—
(a) Is a progressive injury.

Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to—

••Violent shivering, difficulty speaking, sluggish thinking go to—

•••Muscular rigidity with blue, puffy skin; jerky movements go to—

••••Coma, respiratory and cardiac failure. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows:

Remove wet clothing.
Put on dry clothing (if available). Prevent further heat loss.

••Cover top of head.

••Insulate from above and below.
Warm with blankets, sleeping bags, or shelter.


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CAUTION: In frostbite, repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue.

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Warm central areas before extremities.
••Place heat packs in groin, armpits, and around

••Avoid causing burns to skin.

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CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop.

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e. Skin tissue damage.
(1) Immersion injuries. Skin becomes wrinkled as in

dishpan hands.
(a) Avoid walking on affected feet.

(b) Pat dry; DO NOT rub. Skin tissue will be sensitive. (c) Dry socks and shoes. Keep feet protected.
(d) Loosen boots, cuffs, etc., to improve circulation.
(e) Keep area dry, warm, and open to air.

(f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. (2) Saltwater sores.

(a) Change body positions frequently. (b) Keep sores dry.
(c) Use antiseptic (if available).
DO NOT open or squeeze sores.

f. Snakebite.

(1) Nonpoisonous. Clean and bandage wound. (2) Poisonous.

(a) Remove constricting items.
(b) Minimize activity.
DO NOT cut the bite site; DO NOT use your mouth

to create suction.

(d) Clean bite with soap and water; cover with a dressing.


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CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situa- tions where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available.

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(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the overwrap.

  1. (f)  Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion.

  2. (g)  Treat for shock (page V-7, paragraph 1c).

  3. (h)  Positionextremitybelowlevelofheart.

  4. (i)  Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest).

  5. (j)  For conscious victims, force fluids.

g. Marinelife. (1) Stings.

(a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release).

  1. (b)  Remove jewelry and watches.

  2. (c)  Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin.

  3. (d)  Apply a steroid cream (if available).

  4. (e)  DO NOT rub area with sand.

  5. (f)  Treat for shock; artificial respiration may be required

(page V-1, paragraph 1a).
DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds.

(2) Punctures.
(a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot

compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (b) Cover with clean dressing.

(c) Treat for shock as needed.
h. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy).

(1) Wash with large amounts of water. Use soap (if available).

(2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. i. Infection.

(1) Keep wound clean.

(2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection.

(3) Change bandages as needed.


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Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite


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j. Dysentery and diarrhea.
(1) Drink
extra water.
(2) Use a liquid diet.
(3) Eat charcoal. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal

particles with water. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins.) k. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations).

(1) DO NOT take laxatives. (2) Exercise.
(3) Drink
extra water.

3. Plant Medicine

a. Tannin.
(1) Medical uses. Burns, diarrhea, dysentery, skin problems,

and parasites. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. (2) Sources. Found in the outer bark of all trees, acorns,

banana plants, common plantain, strawberry leaves, and blackberry


  1. (3)  Preparation.

    (a) Place crushed outer bark, acorns, or leaves in water. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling.

    Increase tannin content by longer soaking time.

    Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants.

  2. (4)  Treatments.

    (a) Burns.
    Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. Apply compress to burned area.
    Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain.

    (b) Diarrhea, dysentery, and worms. Drink strong tea

solution (may promote voiding of worms).

(c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing.

(d) Lice and insect bites. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching.

b. Salicin/salicylicacid.
(1) Medical uses. Aches, colds, fever, inflammation, pain,

sprains, and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities).
(2) Sources. Willow and aspen trees
(Figure V-7).


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(3) Preparation.
(a) Gather twigs, buds, or cambium layer (soft, moist

layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen.

  1. (b)  Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3).

  2. (c)  Make poultice.

    Crush the plant or stems.

    Make a pulpy mass.

(4) Treatments.

(a) Chew on twigs, buds, or cambium for symptom relief. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat.
(c) Use warm, moist poultice for aches and sprains.

Apply pulpy mass over injury.

Hold in place with a dressing. c. Common plantain.

(1) Medical uses. Itching, wounds, abrasions, stings, diarrhea, and dysentery.

(2) Source. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7.

(3) Preparation.
(a) Brew tea from seeds. (b) Brew tea from leaves. (c) Make poultice of leaves.

(4) Treatments.
(a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery.

(b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals.

(c) Use poultice to treat cuts, sores, burns, and stings. d. Papain.

(1) Medical uses. Digestive aid, meat tenderizer, and a food source.

  1. (2)  Source. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7).

  2. (3)  Preparation.

    1. (a)  Make cuts in unripe fruit.

    2. (b)  Gather milky white sap for its papain content.

    3. (c)  Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds.

  3. (4)  Treatments.

    1. (a)  Use sap to tenderize tough meat.

    2. (b)  Eat ripe fruit for food, vitamins, and minerals.


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e. Common Cattail.
(1) Medical uses. Wounds, sores, boils, inflammations,

burns, and an excellent food source.

  1. (2)  Source. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7).

  2. (3)  Preparation.

    (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes.
    (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute.
    (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked).

  3. (4)  Treatments.
    (a) Apply poultice to affected area.
    (b) Use plant for food, vitamins, and minerals.

A. Typical Willow leaf B. Typical Aspen leaf

6-16 inches tall

edible pollen

C. Cattail

ground level edible rootstalk

D. Plantain
Figure V-7. Useful Plants


edible young leaf shoot

E. Papaya

4. Health and Hygiene

a. Stayclean(dailyregimen).
(1) Minimize infection by washing. (Use white ashes, sand,

or loamy soil as soap substitutes.)
(2) Comb and clean debris from hair. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth.

(a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush).

(b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss.

(c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing.

(d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums.

(4) Clean and protect feet.
(a) Change and wash socks
(b) Wash, dry, and massage.
(c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas.
(d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage.

  1. Exercise daily.

  2. Prevent and control parasites.

    1. (1)  Check body for lice, fleas, ticks, etc.
      (a) Check body regularly.
      (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush).

    2. (2)  Wash clothing and use repellents.

    3. (3)  Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment.

5. Rules for Avoiding Illness

a. Purifyallwaterobtainedfromnaturalsourcesbyusingiodine tablets, bleach, or boiling for 5 minutes.

b. Locatelatrines200feetfromwaterandawayfromshelter. c. Wash hands before preparing food or water.
d. Cleanalleatingutensilsaftereachmeal.
e. Prevent insect bites by using repellent, netting, and clothing. f. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible.

g. Eatvarieddiet.
h. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day.


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1. Priorities


a. Evaluate available resources and situation, then accomplish individual tasks accordingly.

b. First24hoursinorderofsituationalneeds—
(1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (2) Procure water.
(3) Establish multiple survival signals.
(4) Build Fire.

c. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. (2) Procure food.

2. Care and Use of Clothing

a. Neverdiscardclothing.
b. Wearlooseandlayeredclothing.

(1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature.

(2) Layers create more dead air space.
c. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration

in hot climates. When fully clothed, the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas.

d. Avoidoverheating.
(1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities.
(2) Use a hat to regulate body heat.
(3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment).

  1. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. (1) Use salt water, NOT drinking water.
    (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia.

  2. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry

damp clothing in the sun or by a fire).

g. Ifyoufallintothewaterinthewinter—
(1) Build fire.
(2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire.


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h. If no fire is available—
(1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze.
(3) Break ice out of clothing.

i. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). Examine clothing frequently for damage.

(1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible.
(3) Repair when necessary by using—

(a) Needle and thread. (b) Safety pins.
(c) Tape.

j. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1).

  1. (1)  Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square.

  2. (2)  Fold into a triangle.

  3. (3)  Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner.

    Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear

  4. (4)  Fold front over the toes.

  5. (5)  Fold side corners, one at a time, over the instep.

  6. (6)  Secure by rope, vines, tape, etc., or tuck into other layers

of material.

3. Other Protective Equipment

a. Sleepingbag.
(1) Fluff before use,
especially at foot of bag. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture.


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(3) Improvise with available material, dry grass, leaves, dry moss, etc.

b. Sunandsnowgoggles(FigureVI-2).
(1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions.
(2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing,

bark, or similar materials.

Figure VI-2. Sun and Snow Goggles

c. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). Used to protect from sand, snow, insects, and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots).

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Figure VI-3. Gaiters

4. Shelters

Evasion considerations apply. a. Siteselection.

(1) Near signal and recovery site. (2) Available food and water.
(3) Avoid natural hazards:


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(a) Dead standing trees.
(b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. (c) Avalanche areas.

(4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. b. Types.

(1) Immediate shelters. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4).


Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters

(2) General shelter. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain.

(3) Thermal A Frame, Snow Trench, Snow Cave. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Cold climates require an enclosed, insulated

poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters.

  1. (a)  Snow is the most abundant insulating material.

  2. (b)  Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide

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Note: Asageneralrule,unlessyoucanseeyourbreath,yoursnowshelteris too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping.

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Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame


Figure VI-6. Snow Trench


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Figure VI-7. Snow Cave

(4) Shade shelter. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8).

(a) To reduce the surface temperature, the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches).

(b) For thermal protection, a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material).

(5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Tropical/wet climates require enclosed, elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects.

c. Shelter construction.
(1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. (2) Cover with available material.

(a) If natural materials are used, arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. See Figure VI-10 for an example.


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Figure VI-8. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter


Figure VI-9. Elevated Platform Shelter


Figure VI-10. Shingle Method


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(b) If using porous material like parachute, blankets,

Stretch as tight as possible
Use a 40–60 degree slope.
Use additional layers in heavy rain.

  1. Shelter construction materials:
    (1) Raft and raft parts.
    (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts.
    (3) Blankets, poncho, or parachute material. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag.

    (5) Bark peeled off dead trees.
    (6) Boughs, broad leaves, dry moss. (7) Grass and sod.
    (8) Snow.
    (9) Sand and rocks.

  2. Bed construction. Construct a bed to protect from cold, damp,

ground using—

(1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. (2) Boughs, leaves, or dry moss.

5. Fires

a. Evasionconsiderations:
(1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke.
(2) Use fires at dusk, dawn, or during inclement weather. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking.

b. Fire building. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat, fuel, and oxygen.

(1) Heat sources:
(a) Matches or lighter.
(b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and

metals until a good spark is produced). (c) Sparks from batteries.

(d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors).

(e) Pyrotechnics, such as flares (last resort), etc.


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CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire.

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(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). Without prior training, this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device.

Figure VI-11. Friction Method

Note: If possible, carry a fire-starting device with you.

(2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder, kindling, and fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire.)

(a) Tinder. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer, saturate with Vaseline, Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc.) Examples of tinder include—

Candle (shred the wick, not the wax). Plastic spoon, fork, or knife.
Foam rubber.


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Dry bark.
Dry grasses.
Gun powder. Pitch.
Petroleum products.

(b) Kindling. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn.

(c) Fuel. Examples of fuel include—
Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). Dry dung.

c. Types. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses.
(1) Tepee fire
(Figure VI-12). Use the tepee fire to produce

a concentrated heat source for cooking, lighting, or signaling.

Figure VI-12. Tepee Fire

(2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat, to dry out wet wood, and provide coals for cooking, etc.


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Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires

(3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs.

Figure VI-14. Sod Fire and Reflector


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CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.

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(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations.


Figure VI-15. Dakota Fire Hole

(5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). These are very efficient.

Figure VI-16. Improvised Stove


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Chapter VII Water

1. Water Requirements
Drink extra water. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid

level. Exertion, heat, injury, or an illness increases water loss.

Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration.

2. Water Procurement

a. DONOTdrink— (1) Urine.

(2) Fish juices. (3) Blood.
(4) Sea water. (5) Alcohol.

(6) Melted water from new sea ice. b. Watersources:

  1. (1)  Surface water (streams, lakes, and springs).

  2. (2)  Precipitation (rain, snow, dew, sleet) (FigureVII-1).

  3. (3)  Subsurface (wells and cisterns).

  4. (4)  Ground water (when no surface water is available)

(Figure VII-2).

  1. (a)  Abundance of lush green vegetation.

  2. (b)  Drainages and low-lying areas.

  3. (c)  “V” intersecting game trails often point to water.

  4. (d)  Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near.

(e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon

might indicate the direction to water. (5) Snow or ice.

(a) DO NOT eat ice or snow.
Lowers body temperature.
Induces dehydration.
Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth.


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Figure VII-1. Water Procurement


Figure VII-2. Water Indicators


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  1. (b)  Melt with fire.
    Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water.

  2. (c)  Melt with body heat.
    Use waterproof container.
    Place between layers of clothing. DO NOT place next to the skin.

  3. (d)  Use a water generator (Figure VII-3).


Figure VII-3. Water Generator

(6) Open seas.
(a) Water available in survival kits. (b) Precipitation.

Drink as much as possible.
Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. Collect dew off raft.

(c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). Table VII-1. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs



Bluish or blackish Shatters easily
Rounded corners
Tastes relatively salt-free

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Milky or grey
Does not break easily Sharp edges
Tastes extremely salty

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(7) Tropical areas.
(a) All open sources previously mentioned. (b) Vegetation.

Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture.

Leaning Tree. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4).

Figure VII-4. Leaning Tree

Banana plants.
Water trees (avoid milky sap).

Tap before dark. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime.


collect water.

Produce most water at night.
For evasion situations, bore into the roots and

Vines (Figure VII-5A).
Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap).
If juice is clear and water like, cut as large a

piece of vine as possible (cut the top first).
Pour into hand to check smell, color, and taste to

determine if drinkable.
DO NOT touch vine to lips.

When water flow stops, cut off 6 inches of opposite end, water will flow again.

Old bamboo.
••Shake and listen for water.
••Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water.


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••Cut out entire section to carry with you.

••Filter and purify.
Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B).

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Figure VII-5 A and B. Water Vines and Green Bamboo

Beach well. Along the coast, obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6).

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CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea).

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Figure VII-6. Beach Well


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(8) Dry areas.

  1. (a)  Solar still (Figure VII-7).

  2. (b)  Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8).


Figure VII-7. Solar Still


Figure VII-8. Vegetation Bag

(c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). Water bag must be clear.
Water will taste like the plant smells.


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(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10).

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CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags.

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Figure VII-9. Transpiration Bag


Figure VII-10. Seepage Basin

3. Water Preparation and Storage

a. Filtration. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). b. Purification.

(1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. (2) Purify all other water.

(a) Boil at least 1 minute.


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